20 Most Common Oral Diseases

Our mouth can be affected by diseases in any of the areas that form it: Denture, tongue, lips, palate, etc... Find out which are the most common ones, their causes, how to prevent them, symptoms and possible treatments.

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Although many of them are mild, it is important to treat them properly so that they do not worsen and develop into more serious illnesses.which can even harm other organs of our body. We recommend that you always consult your doctor if you think you may suffer from any of them.

Top 6 Diseases of the Teeth and Gums

There are several diseases that affect teeth and gums, but these are the 6 most common problems.


Tooth decay is a bacterial infection that attacks and destroys the hardest substance in the body, the dental enamel, and that affects more than 90 percent of the world's population.. If it is not caught and treated early, it will continue to deepen the tooth, affecting other parts and tissues such as dentin, dental pulp and nerve, as well as the. In its final stage it can cause a painful swelling and complete destruction of the tooth.

Tooth decay can be associated with genetic causes or to different external factors, such as a poor diet, the intake of medication or poor dental hygiene.

To prevent tooth decay, proper hygiene is essential.The treatment is always adapted to the needs of each individual. In case of suffering it there are different treatments that vary depending on the phase in which it is: filling, endodontics and removal of the tooth.


Gingivitis is a inflammation of the gums produced by the accumulation of oral biofilm ( bacterial plaque ). It is usually easily visible because causes redness, tenderness and even bleeding of the gums. Gingivitis is one of the most frequent oral diseases, with high incidence in the adult population.

It can occur both in the dental pieces themselves and in the implants, being of great importance, once again, the eating habits and dental hygiene. It is a reversible disease, but it can lead to periodontitis if not treated correctly.

Periodontitis or Pyorrhea

The periodontitis is characterized by the appearance of redness, textural alterations, bleeding, and receding gums. In more advanced stages of the disease may appear suppuration and dental mobility and even the loss of teeth.

All periodontitis comes from the worsening of gingivitis, although gingivitis does not always worsen into pyorrhea. The origin is the same as gingivitis and there are factors that increase the risk, as the smoking, acute or prolonged infections, diabetes, some drugs, hormonal changes or even stress.

In order to combat periodontitis, the intervention of a specialist is essential and it is usually necessary the combination of mechanical and chemical treatmentsThe purpose of which is to effectively eliminate bacterial plaque.

Dental stains

It is very common for teeth to develop small imperfections that sometimes indicate a health problem and sometimes are simply aesthetic. They can be of extrinsic originwhich would be the superficial and soft deposits, or of intrinsic originThese are the ones that originate inside the tooth and are part of its structure.

The surface stains are usually caused by the poor dental hygiene and by certain substances such as coffee, tobacco, tea, etc... The cause of soft deposits is also poor oral hygiene, which can evolve into tartar. Intrinsic stains, on the other hand, can be caused by medications, malformations, deficiency of any substance in the body or premature aging.

The extrinsic stains are treated with a professional teeth cleaning or teeth whiteningdepending on the origin and magnitude of the stains. If the treatments are not sufficient, or if the stains are intrinsic, the usual solution is the use of dental veneers to hide them.

>> See more about tooth stains <<


Bruxism refers to the unconscious and involuntary clenching of the upper and lower teethboth during the day and at night. This grinding can wear down the teeth and cause other problems such as headaches or muscle aches in the neck, jaw and/or ear area. It is common that the individual does not know they have bruxism until someone else warns them that their teeth are grinding or until it is detected by a dentist.

The causes of bruxism are not entirely clear, although it is commonly related to the stress and different states of anxiety. Bruxism has also been linked to a genetic predisposition and with certain allergies.

The treatment for bruxism consists of the use of a mouth guard or mouth guard which slows down the deterioration of the teeth and alleviates the other symptoms. It is also often recommended to improve some habits that help reduce stress or anxiety.

Dental Plaque

Dental plaque consists of a accumulation of microbial communities on an intercellular matrix. On the other hand, the matrix is an organic framework that is formed by the bacteria themselves, from their remains and those of the polysaccharides. This matrix covers the dental pieces and is the shelter par excellence of the bacteria. cariogenic bacteria.

As with the previous diseases, its presence can be generated by several factors. Although genetic inheritance plays a role, a disease can also be caused by poor dental hygiene or the excess consumption of certain foods such as coffee or sugar are usually the main causes for its appearance.

Prevent its formation is the best way to prevent more serious illnesses such as caries or gingivitis. The best alternative to prevent dental plaque is maintaining optimal dental hygiene and visit the dentist regularly.

>> See more about Dental Plaque <<

The 7 Most Frequent Tongue Diseases

diseases of the tongue

The language is a muscular organ whose most common diseases are:

Sores or Canker Sores on the Tongue:

Canker sores, also known as aphthous ulcers, are ulcer-like lesions with a round or oval shape. They are whitish in color and usually have a slight redness around them. They vary in size and cause pain and discomfort.

Their causes are very varied and are not limited to a lack of hygiene. Canker sores on the tongue can also be caused by the weakened immune system or by a accidental bite inside our mouth. It is also associated with the stress that is generated in our daily lives.

From the point of view of prevention, the likelihood of its occurrence can be reduced by by maintaining a better diet and oral hygiene. In the same way, once they appear, there are in the market different antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs that help reduce symptoms and eliminate their presence within the oral cavity.


Leukoplakia is a type of oral lesion that consists of a whitish plaque growing on some epithelium, in this case on the tongue. This type of plaque cannot be removed by dragging the toothbrush. Its appearance is mainly associated with tobacco and alcoholbut the cause of some of its variants is unknown.

In some cases where leukoplakia has been caused by smoking, its solution has consisted of to reduce or discontinue their use. Although it is a disease that involves changes in the cells with keratin, can also affect non-keratinized bodies such as the tongue or the floor of the mouth.

In case of leukoplakia it is recommended to see a dentist or oncologist. since its appearance can be confused with some types of cancer that take place in the mouth. For this reason, it is recommended that the performing a biopsy of the affected tissue.

Oral Candidiasis or thrush:

Candidiasis is an oral disease of an infectious nature. whose main cause is the fungus Candida Albicans. Its characteristic symptom is the appearance of whitish lesions on the tongue and they can spread throughout the entire oral cavity, even to the throat or lips.

Causes of candiasis include the following weakened immune system, side effects of taking antibiotics, and having diabetes. A weakened immune system allows the proliferation of pathogens while some antibiotics generate an imbalance in the bacteria that coexist in our body.

Diabetes also plays an important role, as high blood sugar levels facilitate the proliferation of the Candida Albicans. It is important to clarify that it is not a sexually transmitted disease. and that can be easily treated with orally administered anti-fungalssuch as rinses, syrups, or tablets that dissolve in the mouth.

Geographic Language

The so-called geographical language is a type of glossitis and is more accurately called benign migratory glossitis. It is a benign inflammation of the tongue, usually painless, characterized by a set of unstacked areas whose locations change.

As with other diseases, its causes are varied and the subject of debate. Some experts point to genetic determinants while others point to a correlation between hormone levels and the onset of the disease.. Also, other experts point to a relationship with the vitamin deficiency in the organism.

As for its treatment, it is not really necessary. This is because benign migratory glossitis disappears on its own. However, it can be reduced and prevented improving oral hygiene and your symptoms can also be treated with some steroid-based oral topicals or with some types of antihistamines.


Glossitis is an acute infection which takes place on the tongue. Some symptoms are redness of the tongue, pain and smoothing of the tongue surface. This severe inflammation causes inconvenience to the chewing process, and the tongue becomes much more sensitive to irritating foods.

A common factor that triggers and maintains glossitis is some type of injury such as a burn or bite. However, it can also appear on the occasion of a allergic reaction oral hygiene product, for example, by infections o irritating foods or products (spicy food, smoking, etc).

There are many ways to treat glossitis, however the first thing that is recommended is a dental consultation. Some of the solutions to this problem are rinses with oral antiseptics, consumption of ascorbic acid and consumption of vitamins.both directly and through fruits, vegetables and greens.

Language Cancer

Tongue cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the cells of the tongue. There are at least two ways it occurs: in the mouth and in the throat.. When presented at mouth levelcan be diagnosed more easily and can even be removed with fewer complications.

On the other hand, when the same is given at throat levelIn the case of throat cancer, it is usually detected at a more advanced stage of its evolution, so the treatment is more complicated. In both cases the throat cancer may be related to the human papillomaviruswhich in turn can be used for diagnosis.

The treatment of this type of cancer consists mainly in its removal.. However, it is often accompanied with other methods such as chemotherapy o radiotherapy. In the scenarios in which this type of cancer is overcome, it is sometimes necessary to resort to a specialist to rehabilitate the ability to speak.

Kawasaki Syndrome

Kawasaki syndrome is a childhood disease extremely rare. Although it is not an oral disease, it has serious repercussions for the tongue. In general, this syndrome consists of inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels of the body which, in turn, occurs on the tongue with redness and swelling.

Other symptoms that accompany this disease that mainly attacks infants under 5 years of age are: High fever lasting more than 5 days, redness in the eyes and palms of the hands and feet, burning or itching in the genital area and swelling in the lymph nodes in the neck.

Although its complications are considered to be rare, the disease can progress to a fatal point. Therefore, immediate medical treatment is necessary upon detection of any of the symptoms. After take the infant to a specialist treatment usually consists of aspirin and immunoglobulin administration and in plenty of rest until the fever goes down.

3 Most Common Lip Diseases

lip diseases

As for the lips, these are the 3 most common diseases that usually affect them:

Cold Sores

Cold sores is an extremely common pathology that is caused by a virus. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 is extremely common and therefore generally affects more than half of the population of a country. For this reason, getting cold sores is as likely as getting the common cold.

However, despite being such a contagious pathology, cold sores can be very contagious. does not affect everyone equally. The effects of carrying the virus vary from person to person, with some people having very frequent outbreaks while others have the virus asymptomatically. Likewise, so far there is no cure for cold sores.

What does exist are medicines to calm symptoms and to reduce the frequency of flare-ups. Some of these are antivirals that slow the appearance of lesions around the lips. Others help dry the lesions and reduce the pain they cause.

Lip Cancer

Like other types of cancer, lip cancer is defined as the appearance of cancer cells in the tissues of the mouth and lips. A common sign or symptom of this type of cancer is the appearance of a sore or lumpeither on the lips or in a nearby area of the oral cavity. One of the causes associated with its appearance is tobacco consumption.

If any type of abnormal formation is detected on the lips or any nearby area, it is best to see a specialist immediately to perform a biopsy to determine the nature of the cells that compose it. In the best case scenario, cancer may be ruled out in favor of another type of oral disease that is considerably less serious.

If lip cancer is confirmed, the treatment is usually the removal of the affected cellsas well as the treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and/or the administration of different types of medications to combat the disease and its possible progression or recurrence.


The angular cheilitis is also popularly known as boquera o perleche. It basically consists of a painful wound that occurs in the fissures or folds of the lips. Such a wound consists of a common dermatosis which presents inflammation. The pain produced is accentuated by the constant rubbing when talking or eating.

Although it is not the only cause, the most common cause is due to the use of orthodontic appliances or dentures. It occurs mostly in the elderly and in children, and is related to the accumulation of saliva in the folds of the lips.. This accumulation generates a maceration of the skin, which in turn leads to the appearance of cracks and contamination.

The cold sore has a cure, but the same should be carried out quickly so that the effects are not chronic. The first thing to do is eliminate that which gives rise to itFor example, when fitting an oral prosthesis, it is possible that the angular cheilitis. If the damage is more extensive, it may be necessary to administer anti-inflammatory ointments and antibiotics afterwards.

Other Common Oral Illnesses

oral diseases

In addition to those mentioned above these are other common oral cavity problems:


Halitosis is the unpleasant odor that is emitted through the mouth, what is commonly known as bad breath.. The first thing to distinguish is that halitosis can have oral and extra-oral causes.. The first are related to the amount of bacterial plaque in the oral cavity and the presence of caries and even the consumption of cigarettes or certain foods.

For its part, halitosis of extra-oral origin is related to systemic diseases.. This means that it could be related to a problem with the respiratory, digestive, liver, or kidney system. However, the most common type of halitosis according to its origin is oral halitosis..

In such cases, the solution lies in more and more careful oral hygiene.. This involves the use of dental floss, tongue cleaner and mouthwash. By keeping an oral hygiene according to our needs it is possible to reduce halitosis to its minimum level until it disappears. A regular dental appointment is also recommended to rule out the presence of cavities. or other oral infections.


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease which, when in contact with the oral cavity, can lead to the development of some type of cancer. However, such a process is not as common as one might imagine.

There are many cases in which the body fights the virus when it is in the oropharyngeal area.. In such cases, the virus fails to affect the growth of the cells located there and after some time disappears without causing damage.

However, in cases where the virus persists and infects the person, the person will can go from having oral HPV to having some form of oral cavity cancer. In these cases the treatment should be those corresponding to the treatment of cancer. On the other hand, papilloma infection can only be reduced through the use of barrier methods of contraception..

Gum Sores

Sores, also known as canker sores, are oral lesions that have a whitish color in the center and a reddish border.. They vary in size, with the largest ones being the most difficult to cure.

Gum sores, like other parts of the mouth, are painful, whether they are small or large. However, gum sores, like other parts of the mouth, are painful, whether they are small or large, these can occur in wetter sections of the mouthThis is why its elimination will be a little slower.

Its origin is diverse and They can be caused by both poor oral hygiene and a deficiency of the immune system. The sores will eventually disappear, but medications and ointments can be given to reduce symptoms and speed up the recovery process.

Throat Sores

Just as they occur in other areas of the mouth, the sores or canker sores may appear in the throat. When sores occur at the level of the throat, cause great difficulty and discomfort to ingest the food..

In such cases it is also a little more difficult to apply ointments and it is therefore advisable to use treatments involving gargling. By following the indicated treatments and carrying out proper dental hygiene, in a matter of a few days it is possible to recover the full health of the oral cavity, as well as to prevent its future appearance.


These are some of the most common diseases that can affect the different parts that make up the oral cavity. Although each disease can be produced by several causes, we have been able to see that poor oral hygiene and poor dietary habits are two factors that tend to trigger many of them.

Maintaining proper oral hygiene does not guarantee oral health, but it does greatly reduces the chances of suffering from many of the most common diseases.. That is why so much importance is given to dental hygiene as the best preventive method for many problems.

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